1. Organisms must get oxygen and nutrients to the cells and into their cells.
  2. They must also get wastes (co2) away from the body and out of the cells.
  3. Adaptations will allow organisms to perform these life functions using their environment to their best advantage.

Diffusion across the cell membrane. Soluble material moves from high to low concentration with no energy spent. This is how organisms get things into and out of the cell.
Remember the difference between active transport and diffusion?

Transport for Dummies


  1. Contractile vacuole for osmoregulation. The control of osmosis, the diffusion of water, into the cell.
  2. Water is the vehicle for transport


  1. Similar to protists but have no contractile vacuoles for osmoregulation
  2. 100% of it's cells are in contact with their environment.


  1. Earthworms have a closed circulatory system with aortic arches for pumping blood. Like a primative heart.
  2. Blood has hemoglobin to enhance oxygen carrying capacity
  3. They are the most like the Human circulatory system.


  1. Grasshoppers have and open circulatory system with only a dorsal blood vessel.
  2. Not very efficient. Blood does not carry oxygen and co2


Plants Have Vascular Tissue

  1. Xylem that will move inorganic material (water & minerals) UP the plant.
    Xylem are dead left over cell walls that cannot carry on life functions.
  2. Phloem that carries organic material, glucose, generally DOWN the plant.
    Phloem is alive and can carry on active transport.
Study Games Drop and Drag

Open Ended Questions

  1. Name two blood vessel that carry oxygen rich blood (be specific as to the name of the artery or vein)
  2. Name two blood vessels that carry oxygen poor blood. Be specific as to the specific name of the artery or vein
  3. Describe what happens to heart rate when carbon dioxide levels rise in the blood. When will the heart rate return to normal?
  4. State two different ways white blood cells help to defend our bodies against the introduction of foreign antigens.
  5. Using one or more complete sentences, describe a change which might occur within our bodies to increase our numbers of white blood cells.
  6. How does a measles vaccine protect a child entering school against the measles? Write one or more paragraphs explaining this. Include discussion of the terms antibody, antigen, immune response, pathogen, primary immune response, and secondary immune response (memory) in your explanation.